History and background . . .
Introductory phase (1945-2001) – period of isolated individuals and attempt of gathering.
This phase was marked by Doctors who tried to apply music within certain techniques and methods of treatment. The first Doctor in our region who was engaged in music therapy was Dr Petar Stanković.(1908-1995).
In his book Divine Medicine published in Belgrade in 1945, for the first time we can find the term ’’music therapy’’ in the sense of method of treatment. He had cooperation with doctors and musicians from Belgrade, and with their colleagues from the region who had interest in music therapy, and he participated in numerous congresses in the country and abroad. There was a great disagreement among official medical circles in the country and because of that Dr Petar Stanković worked abroad for a while. Development of music therapy in Serbia stagnated, despite some isolated attempts. In former republics of Yugoslavia, after initial enthusiasm in 70s of 20th century, there was stagnation in music therapy.
Dr Ranka Radulović (1965- ) is accepted into Institute of Psychiatry – Clinical Center Of Serbia in summer of 1994. Her goal was a master’s degree in music therapy and introduction of music therapy in common psychiatric practice. At this point there was no educated music therapists in the country. Working on the master’s and doctoral theses (Belgrade University School of Medicine), Dr R. Radulović developed the following techniques: analytical listening to music – method of guided fantasies (1996) and integrative music therapy (2001). These methods were the basis for the music therapy in the country.
Early phase (2001-2007) includes foundation of the Association of Music Therapists of Serbia (Association of Music Therapists of Yugoslavia), on initiative of Ranka Radulović, MD, PhD, with the help of a colleague with whom she collaborated for years, when starts the program of education in music therapy under the auspices of AMTS.
The foundation of professional association is followed by the adoption of the Code of Ethics of the Association of Music Therapists of Serbia and the establishment of norms important for development of the future profession, based on the Rulebook on Four-Year Education in Music Therapy of AMTS, and on the Rulebook on Music Therapy Activity of the Association of Music Therapists of Serbia.
The most important impetus to the development of music therapy in Serbia was the acceptance of AMTS by the European Music Therapy Confederation in 2004.
Development phase(2008 – until now) started when the first generation of music therapists completed their education and it was initiated by Dr R. Radulović who created Hatorum – the first specialized Center for Education and Counseling in Music Therapy in the country. During this phase, music therapy was recognized and followed by the State Fund for Health Care as a health care service which is the part of the classic medicine.
This phase is characterized by the further promotion of music therapy and education of the music therapists according to the norms given by EMTR, the new music therapy methods and technics tested on the Clinic for Psychiatry, Clinical Center of Serbia by Dr Ranka Radulović. Also, in this phase there is attempt at forming the cabinet for music therapy as the part of the health facilities and social protection facilities, preschool and school institutions, with emphasis on the adoption of legal regulations at the state level in order to recognize music therapy as an independent profession.
At the same time, following development of the profession and its demands, AMTS was developing under the auspices of EMTC, according to the real possibilities of our country. Thus, the new AMTS normative acts regulating the activities of all bodies AMTS were adopted and working group giving a chance to all of the members of the AMTS to participate in the work of the association and to implement their professional development was created in 2012.
Definition of music therapy
Music therapy is a set of techniques and methods that use sound that may or may not be music. They are used in therapy, prevention, diagnostic, rehabilitation and as a stimulus to mental and physical health and to spiritual development.
Music therapy is practiced in hospitals and outpatient environment, in social protection facilities, preschool and school institutions and in counceling centers. The clients are sick and healthy persons, young and old patients. Music therapy is practiced in group meetings and one-one sessions.
Music therapy is a health practice applied by the professional music therapist, based on learned, clinically verified method or thechnique, using clear indications and monitored results. Music therapy results are presented at professional conferences and professional journals.
Theoretical Foundations . . .
Theoretical foundation for the development of music therapy in our country is prenatal psychology with an integrative, psychodynamic-existential approach and / or cognitive behavioral approach under the original concept of holistic theoretical concept called bereavement music therapy (Radulović, R. 2013). It includes use of many different music therapy thecniques: support technique, support – reeducational technique ( analytical listening to music – method of guided fantasy or method of art music therapy). All of these techniques are made and developed based on clinical practice of Dr R. Radulovic and researches in Institute of Psychiatry – Clinical Center Of Serbia, Special Hospital for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Neurology and Hatorum – Center for Education and Counceling in Belgrade.
Recognition and approval . . .
Music therapy is recognized in Serbia as a health care service which is the part of the classic medicine and it is supported by Republic Fund of Health Insurance in Serbia the state does not recognize music therapy as an independent profession.
The vocation of the music therapist is protected by the Association of Music Therapists. This association issues a certificate and enroll the memebers who had finished the faculty and four year music therapy education based on the Rulebook on Four-Year Education in Music Therapy of the Association of Music Therapists of Serbia and on a program implemented by Hatorum in a register of professional music therapists. The active music therapists have to renew their licenses every five years following the Rulebook on Music Therapy Activity of the Association of Music Therapists of Serbia. This license is an evidence of their professional competence and continuous professional development.
Research and literature . . .
-Radulović, R. (1996): The role of music therapy in traitment of depressivr depressive disorders“, Master Thesis, Faculty for Medicine, University of Belgrade inculded in Cochrane study
-Radulović, R. (2001): Integative Music Therapy in stabilisation psychomotoric, emotional and social status in children with cerebral palsy, PhD Thesis, Faculty for Medicine, University of Belgrade
-Radulović, R. (2010): Qualitative Analysis of the Analytical Lisic Listening (ALM) Music Selaction – The Guided Fantasies Method (GFM) in Sabbatella,P.L..: : Evidence for Music therapy Practice, Research & Education, Selected Readings & Proceedings of the VIII European Music Therapy Congress ,Cadiz, Spain, 5-9 May 2010 – Research Team HUM -794. P.59-67, Key note lecture 8. Selected links
-Radulović,R, Pejović, M. (1994): A Proposal for Development of Music Therapy at the Institute for psychiatry in Belgrade, Engrams 15
-Radulović,R, Pejović.M, Cvetkovič.M., Šaula, B.(1995): Analytical listening of music in therapy of the victim of incest depressive disorder, Engrams 17, Belgrade
-Radulović,R., Pejović,M. (1996):“The role of lullabies in psychodynamic development of man“, Engrams 18, Belgrade
-Radulović, R, Pejovic, M., Golemovic, D. (1997): Comic Elements in Music useful in Musical Therapy in Roux, G., Laharie, M.: (ed.) (1997) Humor: History, Culture et Psychology, Publicatioin of the International Society for Psychopatology Expression and Art Therapy , ISBN: 2-87736-150-0
-Radulović, R., Pejović, М. (1997):“Music and depression“, Savremena administracija, Belgrade
-Radulović, R. (1998.),The guided phantasies method in the treatment of depressive disorders“ Music Therapy Review, French Music Therapy Association, Vol. XVIII No.3,
-Radulović, R.,Savić, A., Radulović, D. (2000): „The possibilities of communication based on the theory of sound identity“ in „Sound, voice, speach – children with cerebral palsy“, Special Hospital for Cerebral Palsy and Development Neurology, Belgrade
-Radulović, R. (2003): „Integrative Music Therapy and Cerebral Palsy“, JUMT, Belgrade
-Radulović, R. (2003): Music Therapy:-Roads and By-Roads, Engrams, Vol. 25, br.3
-Radulović, R., Glumbić, N. (2004): Integrative music therapy in chidren with autistic disorders, Belgrade School for Special Education 1
-Radulović, R. (2004): „How does music treat“, in Ćorić; B. „Man and Medicine“, Ed. „People speak“ Fasper, Belgrade
-Radulović, R. (2009): „Music and Psychosis“ in Ćorić, B. “ Psychosis from the chaos to order ,“ Ed. People speak, Fasper, Belgrade
-Radulović, R (2007): „The role of music therapy in psychodynamic of disabilties“ in „The new tendencies in special education and rehabilitation“ Fasper, Belgrade
-Radulović, R. (2009): Music Therapy as Profession , Collected Papers of the XI Pedagogical Forum, Belgrade
-Radulovic, R. (2011): Music Therapy and Culture, Dositheus, The development of personal resurces in culture, Academica, Res Pvblica, Education and Decission, Belgrade, 117-127
Professional associations . . .
In Serbia there is only one professional association –AMTS, gathering professional music therapists and candidates in the education of music therapy.
Training programs . . .
Education in music therapy is conducted since 2002, in Belgrade.
Education in music therapy is conducted by Hatorum – Center for Education and Counceling of Music Therapy (www.hatorum.com), based on the Rulebook on Four-Year Education in Music Therapy of the Association of Serbia. Hatorum is the only center for music therapy education in our country.
During the training candidates learn to apply the techniques and methods of Music Therapy in healthy and sick, from early childhood to old age, individually and in groups.
The requirement for admission is the previously completed faculty, music education and the ability of playing the instrument (all candidates have to play at least one music instrument actively) and psychological fitness of candidates, which is estimated based on the initial interview.
-theoretical lectures (T1+T2+T3): 384 hours
-didactic analysis of candidates by means of analytical music listening technique: 288 hours i.e. 200 hours at least
-practical lectures: 450 hours minimum
-supervision: 700 hours minimum
Total: 2976 hours
List of Courses
Medical foundations of music therapy
Psychological foundations of music therapy
Psychology of music
Theoretical foundations of psychotherapy
General and special defectological diagnostics (Special education)
General and special psychiatric diagnostics (Psychopahtology
Music foundations of music therapy
Theoretical foundations of music therapy
Methodological foundations of music therapy techniques I, II, III
Clinical music therapy I, II, III
Methodological fundamentals of research
List of techniques and methods
Receptive music therapy methods:
Analytical listening of music – guided fantasies method (Radulovic, R., 1996.) published in Master Thesis
-Art – music therapy method (Radulovic, R.)
-Method of musical choice (Radulovic, R.)
Active music therapy methods;
Integrative music therapy (Radulovic, R., 2001) published in PhD
(It includes song writing metod and improvisation)
Acquisition of licenses
The candidate in education who has finished eight semesters acquires title candidate for a music therapist, and after final examination can be certified and enrolled in the register of active music therapists of AMTS (license has to be renewed every five years).
Bearing in mind that the title of a music therapist is recognized by the professional association of music therapists, and not by the state, members of the AMTS apply music therapy as part of their basic profession respecting the legislation of our country, the Code of Ethics and Rules of music therapy activities of AMTS.
Program Director is Ranka Radulovic MD PhD supervisor, AMTS EMTR Address:11000 Beograd, Gavrilo Princip 48 Phone.+381 11 66 5 9 027; Mob. 063425055