Ksenija Buric, Ph.D
History and background . . .
The field of music and medicine in Croatia has been scientifically developed since 17th century, when Dr. Gjuro Baglivi (1668-1707) documented the therapeutic use of music in his book “De Praxi Medica”. No longer after, Julio Bajamonti (174-1800) wrote about “Physician and Music” (Andreis, 1974).
At the beginning of 20th century music was implemented as a treatment at the Psychiatric Hospital “Vrapče “ and at University Hospital “Sestre milosrdnice” by dr. Hudolin. This field of music and medicine was further elaborated and developed by Dr. Breitenfeld, who was one of co-founders of Croatian Physicians Music Society (CPMS) in the year 1971. The role of CPMS was to promote the field of medicine and music. Until today the CPMS organized five international Medicine and Music Symposia concerning the fields of music in medicine, overuse injuries of musicians and notable composers’ pathography reviews (Breitenfeld et al, 2010).
Although, this development of music in medicine in Croatia was enormously important, it was not enough to set up the good quality standards for the establishment of music therapy profession. In this viewpoint, Music Academy in Zagreb in the year 2000 started one year training course in Music Therapy, but actually the program overview reflected the misconceptions about music therapy. The training course offered the knowledge and skills in using music in psychiatry, with the treatment held by medical staff using classical music with no regards to client populations in question or client needs. The training course lasted only for couple of years, but it creates many issues for professional identity in music therapy, such as the published professional papers which claimed that: (1) A music therapist is actually a music teacher; (2) The knowledge of music therapist is priory knowledge of music teacher and that (3) There are not specific music therapy skills.
In the year 2002, Mrs.Slavica Bevanda, professional musician and the music teacher with additional background in music therapy, has established the Association of Music Therapists. The Association was active for seven years in organising workshops (held by music therapists from abroad) and promoting the appropriate features of music therapy, but then terminated its work in 2009.
In the same time, music therapy was included in Special Education Law and Social Care Law. Despite its inclusion, no state registration for the profession has been achieved till today. Nevertheless, the Republic of Croatia started to employ the music therapists in special schools and in the rehabilitation facilities. In 2011, already 30 professionals from different fields were employed as the music therapists in Croatia and with no formal education in music therapy. So, two questions have arisen from this situation: (1) Where are the music therapists educated? and (2) Which professional qualifications they need to have? It was evident from State’s regulative that every music teacher can be hired as a music therapist, what actually was the case. Further on, the professionals from different fields (rehabilitation, psychology, occupational therapy, special education, speech pathology, social work, psychotherapy), with some music education or skills, also had the necessary qualifications to be hired as music therapists by the State.
As an answer to emerging need to protect the identity of music therapy profession and to develop educational program for professionals “who were hired, but feeling lost as music therapists” and in order to support ongoing clinical practice, Croatian Music Therapy Association (CMTA) was founded in 2012 in Zagreb by professional music therapists.
CMTA is priory dedicated to the development and promotion of music therapy in Croatia. It supports the development of educational programs, clinical practice and research that contribute to the foundation of music therapy as a scientific discipline in Croatia. The aim of the association is to develop and expand the theory and practice of music therapy by establishing the standards of music therapy (MT)education and standards of MT practice.
Theoretical Foundations . . .
The music therapy model mostly used in Croatia is based on theoretical backgrounds such as behavioural and humanistic approaches.
Corresponding with the attitudes of humanistic psychology Orff music therapy is used with children with different difficulties.
Therapy model based on neuroscience - neurological music therapy (NMT), is used in rehabilitation for children and adults.
Recognition and approval . . .
Research and litterature . . .
The Analysis of Connection Between Child’s Musical Improvisations and Expression in Visual-Art Terms
Ksenija Burić, Branko Nikolić, Miroslav Prstačić Hrvatska revija za rehabilitacijska istraživanja, Vol.49 No.1 June, 2013. HRČAK (eng.) PDF
Application of music therapy with children on autistic spectrum disorder
Ksenija Burić, Ana Katušić Hrvatska revija za rehabilitacijska istraživanja , HRRI VOL..48 No 2/2012 HRČAK (eng.) PDF
Zastosowanie muzykoterapii u dzieci z autyzmem
Ksenija Burić, Ana Katušić Terapii przez Sztukę, Lublin, Polska, VOL. 1 (3) 2011 WEB PDF
The effect of Orff Music approach on postural mehanism with a child with cerebral palsy
Ksenija Burić ,Tomislav Ljutić, Dajana Bulić Umjetnost i znanost u razvoju životnog potencijala /Hvar, 2004/ WEB
Correlation analysis between musical-rhythmical improvisation and visual art expression in child
Ksenija Burić Edukacijsko rehabilitacijski fakultet u Zagrebu, 2009.
Music improvisation as a form of music therapy in early intervention with children with social communication difficulties
Ksenija Burić , Edukacijsko rehabilitacijski fakultet u Zagrebu, 2012. PDF Applications of Music therapy in cardiovascular rehabilitation Ana Katušić, Ksenija Burić, Mario Ivanuša Cardiologia Croatica, 2018
Applications of Music therapy in cardiovascular rehabilitation
Ana Katušić, Ksenija Burić, Mario Ivanuša
Cardiologia Croatica, 2018
Professional associations . . .
As an answer to emerging need to protect the identity of music therapy profession and to develop educational program for professionals “who were hired, but feeling lost as music therapists” and in order to support ongoing clinical practice, Croatian Music Therapy Association (CMTA) was founded in 2011. in Zagreb by professional music therapists.
CMTA is priory dedicated to the development and promotion of music therapy in Croatia. It supports the development of educational programs, clinical practice and research that contribute to the foundation of music therapy as a scientific discipline in Croatia. The aim of the association is to develop and expand the theory and practice of music therapy by establishing the standards of education and standards of practice.
At the moment, the members of CMTA board are in the process of setting up the music therapy at the right place, as a Health Profession.
The president of Croatian Music Therapy Association is Assistant professor Ana Katusic, PhD
The Country Representative is Ksenija Buric, Ph.D
Training programs . . .
At the University of Osijek in the year 2017 the Postgraduate Specialist Study Program of Creative Arts Therapy has started where the students can choose to be enrol in 2-years Music Therapy study program (120 ECTS). The programme is provided by the Academy of Arts at Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek with the partner of proposed programme, the School of Medicine. The structure and the content of the study programme offers an excellent balance between knowledge and required skills in the social and biomedical science fields and the field of visual, music, dance and movement and drama arts, as well as specific creative arts therapy subjects, providing students with interdisciplinary competences and comprehensive understanding of the implementation of creative arts in the health, educational and social environment. These competences are based both on contemporary scientific and artistic research what is evident from the represented courses content and their scope.